The Cognitive, Linguistic and Social-Communicative Scales, 2ed

The Cognitive, Linguistic and Social-Communicative Scales, 2ed

$109.95, Kit
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Dennis C Tanner, Wendy M Lamb, Wayne Secord

The CLASS uses a parent interview format to assess development of basic concepts, comprehension and production of grammar, and communicative effectiveness in about 15 minutes. The instrument includes 157 language milestone items that span the developmental period from birth to age 6. The items have been compiled through a comprehensive review of the literature. Examples of developmental milestones are presented to the parent and the parent indicates whether or not the child displays each behaviour. The developmental norms in the manual can be used to identify areas in which delays are demonstrated. An interview questionnaire for the classroom teacher has been added to the second edition of this instrument.

Content Overview

The items are grouped into three systems: Cognitive, Linguistic and Social-communicative. Within each system, the items are arranged into 11 successive developmental levels.

A term (e.g., object permanence) is used to identify and define the behaviour characteristic of each item. In the scales and on the response forms, the same level definition may be used to identify behaviours that develop across several levels.

A general description is presented of the behaviour being assessed by each item. The Item Descriptions are guides for the informant to use in understanding the behaviour in question.


As informant responses are obtained, the examiner places an X in the appropriate square on the response form.

  • A POSITIVE response indicates that "Yes, I am certain that my child exhibits this behaviour."
  • A NEGATIVE response indicates that "No, my child does not demonstrate that behaviour."
  • An INADEQUATE response indicates "I don't know," or "I don't understand."

It is important to analyse examples given by the informant to ascertain that they are appropriate to the Item Description. Parents should be encouraged to give examples.

Interviewing the Classroom Teacher

If the child is attending school, the Classroom Language Record Form should be completed by the teacher. The information reported by the teacher can then be compared with that obtained from the parent.


The complete kit includes the manual and a package of each of the record forms. The CLASS in as essential tool for assessing how the child functions in various language contexts. This instrument can be used in conjunction with formal tests to obtain a picture of the child's cognitive, linguistic, and social functioning in various situations.